100 most asked JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers — Part 2

We are going to learn JavaScript, by answering the most frequently asked javascript interview questions.

JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers Series

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If you guys want to practice for JavaScript Interview on mock video interview, please drop me an email at admin@ankitkumar.dev

Questions

Question 22. How to remove duplicates from an array?

Question 23. How to check if a value is an Array?

Question 24. Implement the Array.prototype.map() method

Question 25. Implement the Array.prototype.filter() method

Question 26. Implement the Array.prototype.reduce() method

Question 27. What is a name function in JavaScript?

Question 28. Can you assign an anonymous function to a variable and pass it as an argument to another function?

Question 29. What is the arguments object?

Question 30. Can you convert arguments object into an array?

Question 31. Does arguments object work on ES6 arrow functions?

Question 32. How to create an object without a prototype?

Question 33. What are the scopes of a variable in JavaScript?

Question 34. What is the purpose of this in JavaScript?

Question 35. What is Callback in JavaScript?

Question 36. How does typeOf Operator work?

Question 37. Explain equality in JavaScript

Question 38. What is the difference between == and ===?

Question 39. What is ECMAScript?

Question 40. What are the new features in ES6 or ECMAScript 2015?

Question 41. What does use strict do?

If you feel lazy to read more text, you can watch a video covering all questions here

22. How to remove duplicates from an array?

There can be multiple ways of removing duplicates from an array, but let me tell three the most popular ways to do it.

  • Using Filter — It is possible to remove duplicates from an array in JavaScript by applying a filter to the same. To call the filter() method, three arguments are required. These are namely array as self, current element as elem, and index of the current element as index.
let language = ['JavaScript', 'Dart', 'Kotlin', 'Java', 'Swift', 'Dart']
function unique_array(arr) {
let unique_array = arr.filter(function (elem, index, self) {
return index == self.indexOf(elem);
});
return unique_array
}
console.log(unique_array(language));

// Logs [ 'JavaScript', 'Dart', 'Kotlin', 'Java', 'Swift' ]
  • Using Loop — In this method of removing duplicate elements from an array, an empty array is used for storing all the repeating
let language = ['JavaScript', 'Dart', 'Kotlin', 'Java', 'Swift', 'Dart', 'JavaScript'];function dups_array(language) {
let unique = {};
langugae.forEach(function (i) {
if(!unique[i]) {
unique[i] = true;
}
});
return Object.keys(unique);
}
console.log(dups_array(language));
  • Using Set — This is the simplest approach of removing duplicate elements from an array in JS. A set is an inbuilt object for storing unique values in an array. Here’s how to use it for eliminating repeating elements from an array
const set = new Set (['JavaScript', 'Dart', 'Kotlin', 'Java', 'Swift', 'Dart']);function uniquearray() {   let unique_array = Array.from(set);   return unique_array;}console.log(uniquearray());

23. How to check if a value is an Array?

  • We can check if a value is an Array by using the Array.isArray() method available from the Array global object.
  • It returns true when the parameter pass to it is an Array otherwise false.
console.log(Array.isArray(5));  //logs false
console.log(Array.isArray("")); //logs false
console.log(Array.isArray()); //logs false
console.log(Array.isArray(null)); //logs false
console.log(Array.isArray({ length: 5 })); //logs false
console.log(Array.isArray([])); //logs true
  • If your environment does not support this method you can use the polyfill implementation.
function isArray(value){
return Object.prototype.toString.call(value) === "[object Array]"
}

24. Implement the Array.prototype.map() method.

As the MDN description of the Array.prototype.map method, the map() method creates a new array with the results of calling a provided function on every element in the calling array.

  • Syntax of map() method is
let newArray = arr.map(callback(currentValue[, index[, array]]) {
// return element for newArray, after executing something
}[, thisArg]);
  • And here is the implementation of it
function map(arr, mapCallback) {
// Check if the parameters passed are right.
if (!Array.isArray(arr) || !arr.length || typeof mapCallback !== 'function') {
return [];
}
else {
let result = [];
// Avoid mutating the original array.
for (let i = 0, len = arr.length; i < len; i++) {
result.push(mapCallback(arr[i], i, arr));
// push the result of the mapCallback in the 'result' array
}
return result; // return the result array
}
}

25. Implement the Array.prototype.filter() method.

As the MDN description of the Array.prototype.filter method, the filter() method creates a new array with all elements that pass the test implemented by the provided function.

  • Syntax is
let newArray = arr.filter(callback(currentValue[, index[, array]]) {
// return element for newArray, if true
}[, thisArg]);
  • Implementations is
function filter(arr, filterCallback) {
// Check if the parameters passed are right.
if (!Array.isArray(arr) || !arr.length || typeof filterCallback !== 'function') {
return [];
}
else {
let result = [];
// Avoid mutating the original array.
for (let i = 0, len = arr.length; i < len; i++) {
// check if the return value of the filterCallback is true or "truthy"
if (filterCallback(arr[i], i, arr)) {
// push the current item in the 'result' array if the condition is true
result.push(arr[i]);
}
}
return result; // return the result array
}
}

26. Implement the Array.prototype.reduce() method.

  • The reduce() method executes a reducer function (that you provide) on each element of the array, resulting in single output value.
  • The reducer function takes four arguments.
  • Accumulator, Current Value, Current Index ,Source Array
  • Syntax is
arr.reduce(callback( accumulator, currentValue, [, index[, array]] )[, initialValue])
  • Implementation
function reduce(arr, reduceCallback, initialValue) {
// Check if the parameters passed are right.
if (!Array.isArray(arr) || !arr.length || typeof reduceCallback !== 'function'){
return [];
}
else {
// If no initialValue has been passed to the function we're gonna use the
let hasInitialValue = initialValue !== undefined;
let value = hasInitialValue ? initialValue : arr[0];
// first array item as the initialValue, Start looping at index 1 if there is no
// initialValue has been passed to the function else we start at 0 if there is an initialValue.
for (let i = hasInitialValue ? 0 : 1, len = arr.length; i < len; i++) {
// Then for every iteration we assign the result of the reduceCallback to the variable value.
value = reduceCallback(value, arr[i], i, arr);
}
return value;
}
}

27. What is a name function in JavaScript?

A named function declares a name as soon as it is defined. It can be defined using function keyword as :

function named() {
// write code here
}

variable and pass it as an argument to another function?

  • Yes! An anonymous function can be assigned to a variable.
  • It can also be passed as an argument to another function.

Example is

let show = function () {
console.log('Anonymous function');
};
show();

29. What is the arguments object?

  • The arguments object is a collection of parameter values pass in a function.
  • It’s an Array-like object because it has a length property and we can access individual values using array indexing notation arguments[1]
  • But it does not have the built-in methods in an array forEach, reduce, filter and map.
  • It helps us know the number of arguments pass in a function.

30. Can you convert arguments object into an array?

  • Yes, We can convert the arguments object into an array using the Array.prototype.slice.
function one() {
return Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
}
  • However, if there is a need to automatically execute a function at the place where it is given and not be called again, then anonymous functions can be used. Such functions have no name. So the name.

31. Does arguments object work on ES6 arrow functions?

No, the arguments object does not work on ES6 arrow functions.

function one() {
return arguments;
}
const two = function () {
return arguments;
}
const three = function three() {
return arguments;
}
const four = () => arguments;
four(); // Throws an error - arguments is not defined

When we invoke function four it throws a ReferenceError: arguments is not defined error.

We can solve this problem if your environment supports the rest syntax.

const four = (...args) => args;

This puts all parameter values in an array automatically.

32. How to create an object without a prototype?

We can create an object without a prototype using the Object.create method.

const o1 = {};
console.log(o1.toString());
// logs [object Object] get this method to the Object.prototype

const o2 = Object.create(null);
// the first parameter is the prototype of the object "o2" which in this case will be null specifying we don't want any prototype
console.log(o2.toString());
// throws an error o2.toString is not a function

33. What are the scopes of a variable in JavaScript?

The scope of a variable is the region of your program in which it is defined.
JavaScript variable will have only two scopes.

  • Global Variables − A global variable has global scope which means it is visible everywhere in your JavaScript code.
  • Local Variables − A local variable will be visible only within a function where it is defined. Function parameters are always local to that function.

34. What is the purpose of this in JavaScript?

The JavaScript this keyword refers to the object it belongs to.

This has different values depending on where it is used.

  • In a method, this refers to the owner object
  • In a function, this refers to the global object.

35. What is Callback in JavaScript?

  • A callback is a plain JavaScript function passed to some method as an argument or option.
  • It is a function that is to be executed after another function has finished executing, hence the name ‘callback’.
  • In JavaScript, functions are objects, So functions can take functions as arguments, and can be returned by other functions.

36. How does typeOf Operator work?

  • The typeof operator is used to get the data type of its operand.
  • The operand can be either a literal or a data structure such as a variable, a function, or an object.
  • It is a unary operator that is placed before its single operand, which can be of any type.
  • Its value is a string indicating the data type of the operand.

37. Explain equality in JavaScript.

JavaScript has both strict and type–converting comparisons:

  • Strict comparison (e.g., ===) checks for value equality without allowing coercion
  • Abstract comparison (e.g. ==) checks for value equality with coercion allowed.
var a = "42";
var b = 42;
a == b; // true
a === b; // false

Some simple equality rules:

  • If either value (aka side) in a comparison could be the true or false value, avoid == and use ===.
  • If either value in a comparison could be of these specific values (0, "", or [] -- empty array), avoid == and use ===.
  • In all other cases, you’re safe to use ==. Not only it is safe, but in many cases it simplifies your code in a way that improves readability.

38. What is the difference between == and ===?

  • == is the abstract equality operator while === is the strict equality operator.
  • The == operator will compare for equality after doing any necessary type conversions.
  • The === operator will not do type conversion, so if two values are not the same type === will simply return false.
  • When using ==, funky things can happen, such as:
1 == "1"; // true
1 == [1]; // true
1 == true; // true
0 == ""; // true
0 == "0"; // true
0 == false; // true

39. What is ECMAScript?

  • ECMAScript is a standard for making scripting languages which means that JavaScript follows the specification changes in ECMAScript standard because it is the blueprint of JavaScript.
  • ECMAScript standardized by the ECMA International standards organization in the ECMA-262 and ECMA-402 specifications.
  • Read more about ECMAScript here.

40. What are the new features in ES6 or ECMAScript 2015?

  • Arrow Functions
  • Classes
  • Template Strings
  • Enhanced Object literals
  • Object Destructuring
  • Promises
  • Generators
  • Modules
  • Symbol
  • Proxies
  • Sets
  • Default Function parameters
  • Rest and Spread Operators
  • Block Scoping with let and const

41. What does use strict do?

  • use strict is a ES5 feature in JavaScript that makes our code in Strict Mode in functions or entire scripts.
  • Strict Mode helps us avoid bugs early on in our code and adds restrictions to it.

Let look at the restrictions that Strict Mode gives us.

  • Assigning or Accessing a variable that is not declared.
function returnA() {
"use strict";
a = 3245;
return a;
}
  • Assigning a value to a read-only or non-writable global variable
"use strict";
var NaN = NaN;
var undefined = undefined;
var Infinity = "and beyond";
  • Deleting an undeletable property
"use strict";
const obj = {};
Object.defineProperty(obj, 'x', {
value : '1'
});

delete obj.x;
  • Duplicate parameter names
"use strict";

function someFunc(a, b, b, c){

}
  • Creating variables with the use of the eval function
"use strict";

eval("var x = 1;");
console.log(x); //Throws a Reference Error x is not defined
  • The default value of this will be undefined
"use strict";

function showMeThis(){
return this;
}
showMeThis(); //returns undefined

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